Daily Archives: March 17, 2018

Testing and Fault Localization Part 2

The Underlying Problem of Fault Localization The underlying problem for fault localization is a phenomenon called confounding (also called confounding bias). Therefore, we must first understand what confounding bias means. In simplest terms, confounding is an unknown causal quantity that is not directly measurable from observed data[1] In other words, an effect is confounded when its cause […]